Saturday, May 06, 2006

New Revised Chronology of the Ancient World based on New Carbon Evidence of the Date for Thera and Santorini Eruption - LexiLine Journal 411

This posting has to do with a fundamental pillar of the chronology of the ancient world on which we have been right for years and the mainstream very wrong.

See e.g. our postings on the dating of the explosion of Santorini to August 4, 1627 BC based on astronomical and dendrochronological considerations, Flinders Petrie Santorini and Ceramics Chronology , Chronology and Santorini and postings by others at The Eruption of Thera and Dendrochronology and Radiocarbon Dating.

Indeed, as far as recent discoveries about the chronology of the ancient world are concerned, these new discoveries or insights almost always confirm OUR view of chronology and not the view of mainstream science, which in many ways is still in the chronological dark ages. This may now start to change, if the people at our academic institutions start to get their heads on straight and follow THE EVIDENCE.

Science magazine, 28 April 2006 issue, Vol. 312, no. 5773, pp. 508 - 509, DOI:10.1126/science.312.5773.508, in its News of the Week for archaeology has a summary of "New Carbon Dates Support Revised History of Ancient Mediterranean" by Michael Balter, writing:
"Two new radiocarbon studies on pages 548 and 565 of this issue of Science claim to provide strong support for the earlier of the two sets of dates that have been proposed for the Late Bronze Age eruption of the Aegean volcanic island of Thera."
These very important studies can be accessed at the links below, which are taken straight out of Science magazine. As you can read there now, the eruption of Santorini is now in fact dated to the time period of 1627-1600 B.C., as we have been arguing for years. THEY still do not know the exact date. WE do.


Santorini Eruption Radiocarbon Dated to 1627-1600 B.C.
Walter L. Friedrich, Bernd Kromer, Michael Friedrich, Jan Heinemeier, Tom Pfeiffer, and Sahra Talamo
Science 28 April 2006: 548 Abstract Full Text PDF Supporting Online Material
Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C.
Sturt W. Manning, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Walter Kutschera, Thomas Higham, Bernd Kromer, Peter Steier, and Eva M. Wild
Science 28 April 2006: 565-569 Abstract Full Text PDF Supporting Online Material
The significance of the new dating to our entire view of ancient history should not be underestimated. It is not merely significant to the dating of the Aegean civilizations, but applies directly to the chronology of Egypt and the Middle East.

Exodus and Moses are traditionally tied to the explosion of Santorini, but as we have argued for years, Moses was born ca. 1707 BC and Exodus took place ca. 1627 B.C and not several hundred years later, as alleged by the current totally erroneous mainstream view.

Also Egyptian and Biblical chronology is totally wrong, and there is no doubt now about this whatsoever. Here is what is written at the abstracts of the two Science articles

1. Science 28 April 2006: Vol. 312. no. 5773, p. 548, DOI: 10.1126/science.1125087

Santorini Eruption Radiocarbon Dated to 1627-1600 B.C.

Walter L. Friedrich,1*Bernd Kromer,2Michael Friedrich,2,3Jan Heinemeier,4Tom Pfeiffer,1Sahra Talamo2

Precise and direct dating of the Minoan eruption of Santorini (Thera) in Greece, a global Bronze Age time marker, has been made possible by the unique find of an olive tree, buried alive in life position by the tephra (pumice and ashes) on Santorini. We applied so-called radiocarbon wiggle-matching to a carbon-14 sequence of tree-ring segments to constrain the eruption date to the range 1627-1600 B.C. with 95.4% probability. Our result is in the range of previous, less precise, and less direct results of several scientific dating methods, but it is a century earlier than the date derived from traditional Egyptian chronologies. [emphasis added]

1 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus, C.F. Moellers Allé 1120, Denmark.
2 Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut fur Umweltphysik, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
3 Institute of Botany, Hohenheim University, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany.
4 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry 14C Dating Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

2. Science 28 April 2006: Vol. 312. no. 5773, pp. 565 - 569 DOI: 10.1126/science.1125682

"Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C.
Sturt W. Manning,1,2*Christopher Bronk Ramsey,3Walter Kutschera,4Thomas Higham,3Bernd Kromer,5Peter Steier,4Eva M. Wild4

Radiocarbon (carbon-14) data from the Aegean Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C. show that the Santorini (Thera) eruption must have occurred in the late 17th century B.C. By using carbon-14 dates from the surrounding region, cultural phases, and Bayesian statistical analysis, we established a chronology for the initial Aegean Late Bronze Age cultural phases (Late Minoan IA, IB, and II). This chronology contrasts with conventional archaeological dates and cultural synthesis: stretching out the Late Minoan IA, IB, and II phases by ~100 years and requiring reassessment of standard interpretations of associations between the Egyptian and Near Eastern historical dates and phases and those in the Aegean and Cyprus in the mid-second millennium B.C. [our addition of the color and emphasis]

1 Department of Classics, Cornell University, 120 Goldwin Smith Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-3201, USA.
2 Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AB, UK.
3 Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratoryfor Archaeology and the History of Art, Oxford University, DysonPerrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK.
4 Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA)Laboratory, Institut fuer Isotopenforschung und Kernphysik, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Straße 17, A-1090 Wien, Austria.
5 Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut fuer Umweltphysik der Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229,D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

The corrected Egyptian and Biblical chronology will accord with our chronology of the Ancient World, a chronology primarily derived from astronomy and solar eclipse data, plus dendrochronological studies such as those by Hollstein, which we were the first to comment positively on the Internet.

It is always remarkable for me to see that I, one person alone, working without funding or pay of any kind, am able to come up with better, earlier, more accurate work than literally thousands of professors working for substantial pay and with tremendous funding at the universities in these fields. These people are smart enough to see the light, but they are mostly too weak to go against established schools of thought and to examine available evidence neutrally and independently, and that is the Achilles heel which keeps most of them in ignorance.

We thank those scholars involved in the Thera studies cited above, as published in Science, studies which we hope will make their academic collegues to finally arise from their Rip van Winkle somnambulation and to encourage them to start to write history as it really was and not as it has been - thus far - erroneously written by them.

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