Monday, May 22, 2006

Astronomy of the Lagundo (Algund) Menhir Italy and the Connection to the Amesbury Archer from the Alps at Stonehenge - LexiLine Journal 415

To our files on Italy at
I have added a new file - lagundomenhir.png - the graphic below:

which is my decipherment of this relatively young menhir which I date to ca. 1750 B.C. I would call this decipherment provisional, since it otherwise does not fit into the land survey scheme that I allege for the older megaliths and because the date of 1750 B.C. is still quite speculative.

As can be seen from the text on the graphic, it is my opinion that this menhir may show the North Celestial Pole as a face with seven axes to the left of its upper torso marking the major stars of Ursa Major and seven axes to the right of its upper torso marking the seven most prominent stars of Ursa Minor.

There are 10 daggers which in my opinion might mark the major stars of Perseus which is at the Vernal Equinox ca. 1750 B.C. plus the bright star Hamal in Aries and Aldebaran in the Taurus further down with the major seven stars of Pleiades shown as a four-wheeled cart (the four corner stars of the Pleiades) which is drawn by two oxen plus one man as the drives off to the side marking the other three stars to the right of the four corner stars. This interpretation is problematical, since the Pleiades are generally not marked this way. Potentially, the cart could mark Auriga which is traditionally seen as the wagoner, but in that case one I have been unable to place the daggers as stars convincingly above the charioteer.

The Vernal Equinox might be marked by a sort of arrow which I have colored red in my decipherment.

The fingerprint type of elements in the drawing seem to mark space which is empty of visible stars, similar to the whorls used elsewhere, which as I have often stated in my decipherments, represent regions of space empty of visible stars.

The graphic for this menhir is based on material found at

The use of daggers viz. axes to mark stars is also found at Stonehenge on the Sarsen stones, about which I have previously posted at:
and members have posted about at

Also interesting in this regard, based on the similar use of axes viz. daggers to represent stars, is the possible connection between this part of Italy and the so-called "Amesbury Archer", also called the "King of Stonehenge" by some, who, according to various tests done on his remains, had spent his youth in the region of the Alps.

The Wessex Archaeology Press Release titled "Tests reveal Amesbury Archer 'King of Stonehenge' was a settler from the Alps" wrote as follows:
"The man who may have helped organise the building of Stonehenge was a settler from continental Europe, archaeologists say.

The latest tests on the Amesbury Archer, whose grave astonished archaeologists last year with the richness of its contents, show he was originally from the Alps region, probably Switzerland, Austria or Germany. The tests also show that the gold hair tresses found in the grave are the earliest gold objects found in Britain.

The grave of the Archer, who lived around 2,300BC, contained about 100 items, more than ten times as many objects as any other burial site from this time. When details were released, the media dubbed the Archer "The King of Stonehenge".

The grave was found three miles from Stonehenge, near Amesbury in Wiltshire, last May during an excavation by Wessex Archaeology, based nearby at Salisbury, in advance of the building of a new housing scheme and school.

The Archer was obviously an important man, and because he lived at the same time that the stones at Stonehenge were first being built, archaeologists believe he may have been involved in its creation.

Tests were carried out on the Archer's teeth and bones and on the objects found in the grave, which included two gold hair tresses, three copper knives, flint arrowheads, wristguards and pottery. They show that he came from the Alps region, and that the copper knives came from Spain and France. This is evidence of the wide trade network that existed in the early Bronze Age. The gold dated to as early as 2,470BC, the earliest gold objects found in Britain.

Stonehenge was begun in the late Stone Age, around 3,000BC, as a ditch and a bank enclosing an open space. In about 2,300 BC – approximately the time the Archer died –the world-famous stones were erected, the large 20-tonne Sarsen stones from the Marlborough Downs nearby and the smaller four-tonne Bluestones from Preseli in west Wales. How the Bluestones were transported 240 miles (380 kilometres) is not yet known.

The importance of the Archer and his grave are detailed in a programme 'King of Stonehenge: A Meet the Ancestors Special' on BBC2 on Wednesday February 19 at 9 pm.

Dr Andrew Fitzpatrick, of Wessex Archaeology, said: "This was a time of great change in Britain – the skills of metalworking were being brought here from abroad and great monuments such as Stonehenge were being built.

"We have long suspected that it was people from the continent of Europe who initiated the trade that first brought metalworking to Britain, and the Archer is the first discovery to confirm this.

"He would have been a very important person in the Stonehenge area and it is fascinating to think that someone from abroad – probably modern day Switzerland – could well have played an important part in the construction of Britain's most famous archaeological site."

The Archer was an example of the spread of the Beaker culture from the continent, marked by a new style of pottery, the use of barbed flat arrow heads, copper knives and small gold ornaments.

Tests on the bones carried out by Wessex Archaeology's own staff showed that the Archer was a man aged between 35 and 45. He was strongly built, but he had an abscess on his jaw and had suffered an accident a few years before his death that had ripped his left knee cap off. As a result of this he walked with a straight left which swung out to the side of him, and suffered from an infection in his bones which would have caused him constant pain.

Other tests on the enamel found on the Archer's teeth could not reveal how long he had lived in Britain, only that he must have lived in the Alps region while a child. He was most probably from what is now Switzerland, although it is possible he could have come from areas of Germany near Switzerland or Austria.

Also found at the site was a second skeleton of a younger man, aged 20 to 25. Two gold hair tresses were found lodged in mud in his jaw. Bone analysis showed he and the Archer were related and it is likely they were father and son. Analysis of his teeth show he grew up in southern England but may have spent his late teens in the Midlands or north-east Scotland.

Other tests were carried out by the British Museum, the National Museums of Wales and Scotland, the British Geological Survey, the National Trust Museum at Avebury and the Universities of Durham, Exeter, Oxford and Southampton. They showed that the Archer wore animal skins fashioned into a cloak and was buried with pottery made locally, perhaps specially for his funeral

Sunday, May 21, 2006

Thursday, May 18, 2006

Ancient Survey of Brazil by Astronomy - LexiLine Journal 413

In the previous posting, I referred to a new megalithic discovery in Brazil, which I identified as part of an ancient geodetic survey line, made by astronomy.

I can now add additional information. The megaliths were found 16 kilometers from Calçoene, NW of Amapa and indeed giving a straight line from Nazca and Machupicchu, at least on my map of Brazil in my Encyclopaedia Britannica.

But that is not all. More astounding things can be reported, based on my research of the last couple days.

A line drawn from Calcoene to Sao Raimundo Nonato - near the famed rock art (petroglyphs) in PARQUE NACIONAL DA SERRA DA CAPIVARA (Serra da Capivara National Park, managed by Fumdham (Fundação Museu do Homem Americano - The Museum of American Man Foundation), and the especially well-known Boqueirao de Pedra Furada - marks a ca. 90 degree angle and a line then drawn from Nazca through Sao Raimundo Nonato and extended toward the Atlantic Ocean stops at the most easterly point of land on the entire Americas, Joao Pessoa, near which there is the largest megalith in Brazil, one with writing on it of unknown provenance, the Inga Rock (also called Inga Stone, Pedras do Ingá, Itacoatiaras do Ingá).

The government website of Brazil writes about Paraiba:
"In the interior of the state, 120 kilometres from João Pessoa, lies Campina Grande, the second largest city of Paraíba in terms of population, where one of the biggest June festivals is held. St John's Night, on 24 June, is commemorated in the Parque do Povo, an area of 42,000 m2 - half the size of Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro. Decked out in flags and with bonfires everywhere, the city of 326,000 inhabitants receives an average of 400,000 tourists from all over Brazil and abroad. Campina Grande also offers scientific adventure. 40 kilometres from the city centre are the Pedras do Ingá, stones bearing inscriptions of great archaeological value. Surrounded in mystery, they form with the Valley of the Dinosaurs an important paleontological site."
And furthermore the government site writes about the Paleontological Site:
"The town of Sousa, situated in the Paraíba outback, 480 kilometres from the capital, is the location for the Valley of the Dinosaurs, considered to be an important world paleontological site, with footprints of Jurassic species at least 70 million years old. The vestigial prints form a path along the banks of the Peixe river, where iguanodontus and alossaurus lived millennia ago.

At Ingá, 96 kilometres from the capital João Pessoa, inscriptions carved into the rocks known as Pedras or Itacoatiaras do Ingá arouse the curiosity of scientists, students and tourists. Surrounded in mystery even today, the ancient inscriptions are indecipherable symbols, but of great archaeological value. There are three schools of thought about their origin: they were written by natives of the region; they are a manifestation of an evolved culture from another continent; or they are even a message from extraterrestrials on a visit to this planet.
Of course, we should immediately discard the last explanation of those three and look at the other two. Interesting is that the nearby city of Campina Grande is the national site for celebration of the Summer Solstice on St. John's Day. An ancient feast.

A page on enigmas online writes about Peabiru and Inga Rock:
"As inscrições encontradas em Ingá na Paraíba( foto abaixo), constituem o verdadeiro modelo das inscrições atribuidas ao SUMÉ. As lendas contam que Sumé, o civilizador dos índios tupi, perseguido pelos tupinambás, foi para o Paraguai e dali para o Peru. Durante esta caminhada, teria aberto uma estrada que ficou conhecida entre nossos indígenas como PEABIRU, ou o CAMINHO DA MONTANHA DO SOL. Um arqueólogo brasileiro reconstituiu recentemente o caminho seguido pelo Sumé, encontrando dezenas de marcos. A existência do Peabiru parece confirmar que existiu um intercâmbio entre os indígenas do Brasil e do Peru.A questão de que o tipo branco na América pré-colombiana tem preocupado os pesquisadores e estudiosos."
That is Portuguese, and the Google Translate translation (the best of several that we tried online) is as follows into English:
"The inscriptions found in Inga Paraiba (pictured below), are the very model of entries assigned to the sume. The legends say that Sumé, the civilizing of the Tupi, pursued by tupinambás, went to Paraguay and then to Peru. During this journey, he opened a road that became known among our peoples as PEABIRU, or WAY SUN MOUNTAIN. An Australian archaeologist recently reconstructed the path followed by Sumé, finding dozens of landmarks. The existence of Peabiru seems to confirm that there was an exchange between the natives of Brazil and Peru. The question that the white guy in the pre-Columbian America has worried researchers and scholars." notes:
"According to American Cyrus Gordon and French Gabriela Martin, the "itacoatiaras" on Pedra Lavada farm, in Ingá, Paraíba, are the most important pre-historical inscriptions among the ones that haven't been thoroughly studied yet. Still not deciphered, they represent a precious archaeological monument. Of unknown origin, it's possible to have been carved by Indians, Phoenicians, or other peoples. They are 70 km away from João Pessoa and 40 km from Campina Grande, on a 24m-high and 3m-wide boulder, surrounded by gneiss blocks strangling a river. It's being studied by scientists from all over the world. "
The Legendary Times, which at the moment provides much more solid information online about the Inga megalithic site than mainstream archaeology, shows a very good photograph and describes Inga Rock as follows:
"Description: Pictures in rock, with carbon 14 data around 5.000 years old. [This dating is significant, i.e. ca. 3000 BC]
Object size: 230 tons
City: Inga, Paraiba
Country: Brazil
Location: This rock is in the Paraiba state, NE from Brazil. Around 80 km from Joao Pessoa, state capital.
Photographer: David Nobrega
Date: 10-28-2005
uploaded by david nobrega

Meanwhile well known by tourists are the rock inscriptions of Paraíba, Brasil (about 60 miles from the city of João Pessoa, near the "Chapada da Borborema" mountains). One single rock, the "Stone of Inga" ("Pedra do Inga") ist about 4 meters hight and 24 meters long. Probably about 10.000 years old the rock is full of strange figures and symbols. What is the meaning of the drawings? Do they have parallels to other inscriptions or petroglyphs in other parts of South America? Other rock paintings in this area are younger, like those of Pianí (Varzea Grande) which were made 8.000 years ago and those discovered in Minas Gerais, which are 4.000 years old."
I think we are on pretty firm ground in seeing all of these sites, including Inga Rock, Nazca, Machupicchu and Calcoene as geodetic markers, placed by the ancients as part of their land survey of South America by astronomy.

I have some decipherments of the applicable rock art nearly finished and will be uploading them in the coming weeks. These decipherments will date these megalithic sites and rock art to ca. 3000 B.C. and will show them to be astronomy. In addition, we will add some new analysis toward a solution of the mystery of the constellation of the fox at newly discovered sites such as Buena Vista in Peru and we will in fact show rock art in Brazil which has the fox conclusively drawn on stone in relief, whereby we will be able to suggest the part of the sky which the constellation of the fox actually represented originally.

Sunday, May 14, 2006

Nazca - Machupicchu - Amapa Survey Line by Astronomy - LexiLine Journal 412

According to a May 13, 2006, BBC News article by Steve Kingstone out of Sao Paulo, Brazil, titled " 'Brazilian Stonehenge' discovered ", Brazilian archaeologists have found a large megalithic site in Amapa, Brazil. The site consists of 127 megaliths. Archaeologists see a relation to astronomy and the marking of the Winter Solstice, which is probably true.

In addition, however, I would like to call attention to the ancient survey lines that I have drawn for South America at

As you can see there clearly, the lowest left most southerly survey line in South America, which points NE, if extended, would hit Amapa. This line appears to run from Nazca to Machupicchu to Amapa.

Although I do not yet have the precise coordinates for the megaliths found, I would predict here that the Amapa megaliths are thus part of the survey by astronomy that I have discovered and that I describe in my book, Stars Stones and Scholars and about which I post here regularly at the LexiLine Newsletter.

Saturday, May 06, 2006

New Revised Chronology of the Ancient World based on New Carbon Evidence of the Date for Thera and Santorini Eruption - LexiLine Journal 411

This posting has to do with a fundamental pillar of the chronology of the ancient world on which we have been right for years and the mainstream very wrong.

See e.g. our postings on the dating of the explosion of Santorini to August 4, 1627 BC based on astronomical and dendrochronological considerations, Flinders Petrie Santorini and Ceramics Chronology , Chronology and Santorini and postings by others at The Eruption of Thera and Dendrochronology and Radiocarbon Dating.

Indeed, as far as recent discoveries about the chronology of the ancient world are concerned, these new discoveries or insights almost always confirm OUR view of chronology and not the view of mainstream science, which in many ways is still in the chronological dark ages. This may now start to change, if the people at our academic institutions start to get their heads on straight and follow THE EVIDENCE.

Science magazine, 28 April 2006 issue, Vol. 312, no. 5773, pp. 508 - 509, DOI:10.1126/science.312.5773.508, in its News of the Week for archaeology has a summary of "New Carbon Dates Support Revised History of Ancient Mediterranean" by Michael Balter, writing:
"Two new radiocarbon studies on pages 548 and 565 of this issue of Science claim to provide strong support for the earlier of the two sets of dates that have been proposed for the Late Bronze Age eruption of the Aegean volcanic island of Thera."
These very important studies can be accessed at the links below, which are taken straight out of Science magazine. As you can read there now, the eruption of Santorini is now in fact dated to the time period of 1627-1600 B.C., as we have been arguing for years. THEY still do not know the exact date. WE do.


Santorini Eruption Radiocarbon Dated to 1627-1600 B.C.
Walter L. Friedrich, Bernd Kromer, Michael Friedrich, Jan Heinemeier, Tom Pfeiffer, and Sahra Talamo
Science 28 April 2006: 548 Abstract Full Text PDF Supporting Online Material
Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C.
Sturt W. Manning, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Walter Kutschera, Thomas Higham, Bernd Kromer, Peter Steier, and Eva M. Wild
Science 28 April 2006: 565-569 Abstract Full Text PDF Supporting Online Material
The significance of the new dating to our entire view of ancient history should not be underestimated. It is not merely significant to the dating of the Aegean civilizations, but applies directly to the chronology of Egypt and the Middle East.

Exodus and Moses are traditionally tied to the explosion of Santorini, but as we have argued for years, Moses was born ca. 1707 BC and Exodus took place ca. 1627 B.C and not several hundred years later, as alleged by the current totally erroneous mainstream view.

Also Egyptian and Biblical chronology is totally wrong, and there is no doubt now about this whatsoever. Here is what is written at the abstracts of the two Science articles

1. Science 28 April 2006: Vol. 312. no. 5773, p. 548, DOI: 10.1126/science.1125087

Santorini Eruption Radiocarbon Dated to 1627-1600 B.C.

Walter L. Friedrich,1*Bernd Kromer,2Michael Friedrich,2,3Jan Heinemeier,4Tom Pfeiffer,1Sahra Talamo2

Precise and direct dating of the Minoan eruption of Santorini (Thera) in Greece, a global Bronze Age time marker, has been made possible by the unique find of an olive tree, buried alive in life position by the tephra (pumice and ashes) on Santorini. We applied so-called radiocarbon wiggle-matching to a carbon-14 sequence of tree-ring segments to constrain the eruption date to the range 1627-1600 B.C. with 95.4% probability. Our result is in the range of previous, less precise, and less direct results of several scientific dating methods, but it is a century earlier than the date derived from traditional Egyptian chronologies. [emphasis added]

1 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus, C.F. Moellers Allé 1120, Denmark.
2 Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut fur Umweltphysik, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
3 Institute of Botany, Hohenheim University, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany.
4 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry 14C Dating Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

2. Science 28 April 2006: Vol. 312. no. 5773, pp. 565 - 569 DOI: 10.1126/science.1125682

"Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C.
Sturt W. Manning,1,2*Christopher Bronk Ramsey,3Walter Kutschera,4Thomas Higham,3Bernd Kromer,5Peter Steier,4Eva M. Wild4

Radiocarbon (carbon-14) data from the Aegean Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C. show that the Santorini (Thera) eruption must have occurred in the late 17th century B.C. By using carbon-14 dates from the surrounding region, cultural phases, and Bayesian statistical analysis, we established a chronology for the initial Aegean Late Bronze Age cultural phases (Late Minoan IA, IB, and II). This chronology contrasts with conventional archaeological dates and cultural synthesis: stretching out the Late Minoan IA, IB, and II phases by ~100 years and requiring reassessment of standard interpretations of associations between the Egyptian and Near Eastern historical dates and phases and those in the Aegean and Cyprus in the mid-second millennium B.C. [our addition of the color and emphasis]

1 Department of Classics, Cornell University, 120 Goldwin Smith Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-3201, USA.
2 Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AB, UK.
3 Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratoryfor Archaeology and the History of Art, Oxford University, DysonPerrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK.
4 Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA)Laboratory, Institut fuer Isotopenforschung und Kernphysik, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Straße 17, A-1090 Wien, Austria.
5 Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut fuer Umweltphysik der Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229,D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

The corrected Egyptian and Biblical chronology will accord with our chronology of the Ancient World, a chronology primarily derived from astronomy and solar eclipse data, plus dendrochronological studies such as those by Hollstein, which we were the first to comment positively on the Internet.

It is always remarkable for me to see that I, one person alone, working without funding or pay of any kind, am able to come up with better, earlier, more accurate work than literally thousands of professors working for substantial pay and with tremendous funding at the universities in these fields. These people are smart enough to see the light, but they are mostly too weak to go against established schools of thought and to examine available evidence neutrally and independently, and that is the Achilles heel which keeps most of them in ignorance.

We thank those scholars involved in the Thera studies cited above, as published in Science, studies which we hope will make their academic collegues to finally arise from their Rip van Winkle somnambulation and to encourage them to start to write history as it really was and not as it has been - thus far - erroneously written by them.

Much Human Gene Variation is Recent - LexiLine Journal 410

Scott Norris for National Geographic News on March 8, 2006 reported that
Human Genome Shows Proof of Recent Evolution, Survey Finds

Contrary to prevailing beliefs among the anthropologists, and "beliefs" rather than facts is the right word, genetic research indicates that numerous variations in the human genome are very recent, indeed having developed within the last 15,000 years or so, and this may include divergent characteristics such as skeletal composition (bone structure), hair, and skin color. Obviously, if that were true, there are also other related developments in the human genome which are also relatively recent, including the manifestation of human intelligence in its modern form.

Essentially, these findings confirm the conclusions that normal common sense has long indicated to be true. It is not possible that mankind existed in its present form, with its current brainpower, for millions of years or even hundreds of thousands of years, during which man did nothing, with civilization suddenly emerging magically after the last ice age.

Rather, it seems much more logical to conclude that once mankind acquired the brainpower of modern man, the development of civilization, including a sophisticated language and technology, necessarily developed quickly.

I have long argued this point concerning the Baltic peoples and the Baltic Sea. "Balt" in Latvian means "white" and a good argument can be made that the palefaces of humanity developed originally in that region, as the archaic Baltic languages seem to indicate. As written in the National Geographic article:

"Genes related to physical characteristics also showed strong evidence of selection, with interesting differences among the three populations.

"We found five different genes involved in skin pigmentation in the European population," Pritchard said.

He noted that, for humans living far from the equator, lighter skin is important for producing vitamin D, which is often formed in the body following exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays.

Pritchard says evidence of recent pigmentation changes in Europeans may be the tail end of a much older process underway since modern humans first moved out of Africa or Asia to higher latitudes.

But the genetic changes could also be a reflection of more recent northward migrations following the last Ice Age, about 14,000 years ago, he says."

In this regard, many have laughed over the years at my suggestion that the Baltic languages give evidence of being very close to the actual origin of proto-Indo-European language. Given the developing genetic findings, this no longer seems as improbable as it once may have appeared to be to mainstream scientists bogged down in their outdated paradigms.

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