To our Malta folder at our LexiLine files at
I have added
THE TEMPLE OF GGANTIJA is CRUX, THE SOUTHERN CROSS
The temple of Ggantija on Gozo, the Maltese island northwest of
Malta represents Crux, the Southern Cross, with the addition of two
stars of Centaurus.
Ggantija is located at Xaghra on Gozo.
The name XAGHRA allegedly means "scrubland", which is similar to
Indo-European e.g. Latvian ZHAGARI "branches, brushwood" but
homophonic (same-sounding) with Latvian ZHOUGRA- "of the enclosure",
for Crux is located at a unique enclosed "hole" in the Milky Way.
The former name of Xaghra according to the Malta Specialists - see
http://www.chevron.co.uk/p165.htm - was the Italian CACCIA allegedly
meaning "hunt, chase" which seems very close to the Italian CROCE,
old name for the Southern Cross.
PRINCIPLES OF DECIPHERMENT EMPLOYED AT MALTA and GOZO
The principles of decipherment applied in the decipherment of
Ggantija apply to ALL of the temples of Malta.
Principle 1: The reason that the temples of Malta have such strange
shapes is because they were built to reflect the shape and location
of the stellar constellations and stars depicted. At Ggantija we see
that the ancients added two stars of Centaurus to their picture of
the Southern Cross. I think they did that because this entire group
of stars may have been used as a major starting point to triangulate
the heavens, as one can see at my hypothetical triangulation
cruxcalc.gif. Similar triangulation was surely made using the Great
Square in the North. As Richard Hinckley Allen writes in Star Names:
Their Lore and Meaning, p. 325 "[Markab, alpha-Pegasi]
culminates...and when on the meridian forms, with gamma, the
southern side of the Great Square, beta and delta forming the
northern, and all 15 degrees to 18 degrees apart."
Principle 2: Much as we still have "houses" of the heavens in our
modern Zodiac, the ancients built "rooms" in their hermetic ["as on
earth, so in heaven"] system. Each large room of each temple
represents one bright star in the heavens for a specific location.
The good-luck four-leaf clover of Ggantija represents the stars
alpha, beta, gamma and delta in Crux. [The connection to this old
Irish good luck charm may not be chance, by the way, since Centaurus
above Crux is known as St. Patrick's Chair in the Irish megaliths.
The Latvian Dainas also speak about the fields of clover in the
Principle 3: Not seen at Ggantija but found at temple sites on the
island of Malta are several cases where the rooms are divided and
represent two or more stars. Smaller rooms tend to be stars which
are not as bright.
Principle 4: The temples are all oriented from the viewers horizon
looking North and are "true" to the heavens in the decipherment. One
does not have to turn a megalithic site to get the desired
deciphered constellation. They are on the horizon in the autumn
exactly as picture on earth on Gozo and Malta.
Starry Night Pro (see http://www.StarryNight.com) was used to determine the
position of the stars. Stellar positions appear to reflect a sky of
ca. 3117 BC according to my use and interpretation of Starry Night
Pro and the Heifetz Precessional Planisphere (see http://www.starlab.com).
At this time, the stars represented at Gozo and Malta are below the
Summer Solstice point and show the "lowest" point of the Celestial
Equator in its 25920 year precessional journey - the lowest point
for those particular stars of course. To either side of ca. 3117 BC
forward or backward in years BC, the Maltese constellations, Carina
for example, dip further and further below the horizon [because the
Celestial Equator rises at that point]. Hence, the position of Carina
(marked by Tarxien) - just on the horizon - dates
the Maltese sites without any astronomical doubt to ca. 3117 BC.
Principle 5: Not only do the large rooms of the Maltese temples mark
the bright "landmark" stars of the constellations. Other megalithic
details within (or also without) the megalithic sites represent
stars of lesser brightness or magnitude. [Note - a star of magnitude
1 is very bright whereas a star of magnitude 6 is much less bright.
Most constellations are marked by major stars having at least a
magnitude of about 4]. Figures are often also made with groups of
stones. I have surely spotted only a small fraction of these.
We see an example of this principle of detailing the heavens at
Ggantija. Since Alpha-Crucis (the star Alpha in Crux) is located
almost right on the Galactic Equator (the middle of the Milky Way
lengthwise) - the ancients creatively put up a nice wall of false
doors at that comparable location on the inside of the Alpha-Room at
Ggantija, there showing the smaller stars of Crux just in front of
Alpha-Crucis. These are the stars eta, zeta, HIP 60771, HIP 61158,
HIP 62027, and HIP 62652. [HIP is the star catalogue abbreviation
for HIPparcos, i.e. Hipparchus]. These stars then form the doors -
of comparable width ! - found at that inner megalithic wall, as
shown in my graphic on Ggantija.
The distance from one star to the next marks the width of the
megalithic door. In even greater detail we find that the stars
between eta and zeta Crucis form the shape of a woman and this shape
of the woman is then even sculpted into the wall behind the first
door on the left. Similarly, the star stones which I have marked 1,
2 and 3 in the second door from the left may show the three small
stars found between zeta-Crucis and HIP 60771, though this is less
clear than the woman's figure at the back of the first door left.
Above this wall of doors the rest of the wall shows stars across the
way from alpha-Crucis and Crux, marking e.g. the stars of Musca to
the left. This part of the wall is difficult to read due to
In any case, the ancients have given us many, many opportunities to
check our stellar identifications and you can be sure I have found
only a few of many that are still waiting to be discovered at the
geodetic astronomical temples of Malta and Gozo.