This is one my most important postings ever because it is an important step forward in resolving the question of the origin of human writing.
I have been able to decipher several of the Balkan Danube Scripts (ca. 4000-3000 BC) from Transylvania (Romania), Karanovo (Bulgaria) and from Thracian Greece as astronomy. In addition, I have been able to decipher the Djer wooden and ivory tablets from Abydos and Saqqara (ca. 3000 BC) - also as astronomy. In my view, this resolves the question of the origin of Pharaonic writing - it derives from what are today called the Danube Scripts, whatever their provenance may be.
To a newly created LexiLine File "Danube Scripts Deciphered" at
I have uploaded
danubescript.png [the graphic below]
(Danube Script from Transylvania deciphered as astronomy, ca. 4000 BC)
(Karanovo Planisphere newly deciphered - I originally dated this to
5600 BC but correct is ca. 3000 BC)
(Lepenski Vir Circular Planisphere Deciphered dating to ca. 4000 BC)
(Thracian Greek Spindle Whorl from Dikili Tash Deciphered as
Astronomy ca. 3750 BC)
danubekaro.png [the graphic below]
(Comparison of Danube Script and Karanovo Planisphere Decipherments)
(Comparison of Lepenski Vir Script and Danube Script Decipherments)
and to the LexiLine Egypt files at
I have uploaded
djer2.png [the graphic below]
deciphering the Wooden Tablet of Djer (from Saqqara) and the Ivory Tablet of Djer (from Abydos).
Those two decipherments I made already in 2002 but had not yet posted. Sometimes I make these decipherments and then they are simply forgotten on the hard disk. But I think that a posting now fits in well with the Danube Script decipherments.
As one can easily see from the similar symbols, the scripts undeniably have the same origin, as the style of the symbols is the same, only that the corpus of symbols has been expanded on the Djer tablets and of course this expansion continued from there on into the development of hieroglyphic writing in Pharaonic Egypt.
These results confirm the ceramics analysis I have previously made about the similarity of Dnieper, Dniester, Danube and Pharaonic pottery, with an exact ceramic match between the Boian Culture, and Sumerian and Pharaonic Egypt. See http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi98.htm. How anyone can fail to see the obvious relationship is beyond my understanding.
The Danube Script and the Hieroglyphic Writing of Egypt as found in rudimentary form on the Djer Tablets have NOTHING to do with token counting in Mesopotamia. Zero. I go into this more deeply below.
My attention to the Danube Scripts came through snail mail from a friend who sent me a past article on the history of writing as published in a German newspaper (Ulli Kulke, "Es begann mit der Sintflut", Fueilleton, Die Welt, October 10, 2003).
That article cites to two books by Harald Haarmann: 1) Geschichte der Schrift [The History of Writing] and 2) Geschichte der Sintflut - Auf den Spuren der frühen Zivilisation [The History of the Flood - On the Track of Early Civilization], both published by C.H. Beck in Munich.
Haarmann reports that dendrochronological dating of artefacts has shown that the Danube Script, which has been known for decades,
is generally becoming to be known as the oldest human writing, in spite of resistance by the "Mesopotamianists" who wish to attach the title of "Mother of all Scripts" to Iraq and to the previous Sumerian culture once extant there.
The Danube script originates in Europe and not the Middle East (see the map at
There is considerable controversy on this matter.
As written at the Wikipedia under "Writing" at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Writing
"The first examples of writing are probably cave drawings, most famously found in France. Even these proto-languages show significant structure. The first examples of structured linear writing have been found in the lower Danube Valley and date from around 5000 BC. The first examples of Sumerian writing in Mesopotamia date from around 4000 BC...."What my new decipherments show is that (at least these) Danubian symbols are astronomical, raising the interesting issue of whether writing developed from astronomical symbols - as appears to be case - rather than from signs for counting, which is a disputed theory
propagated by Denise Schmandt-Besserat
It is in fact quite clear from the evidence that I have now presented that the hieroglyphs of Egypt developed from early pictorial signs as found on the Danube Scripts and not from counting tokens.
One MUST compare the ivory and wooden tablets of Djer I have uploaded to the Danube Scripts I have uploaded.
Maria Carmela Betrò writes that the first specimens of Sumerian writing are basically pictographic (pictorial writing)...."
and are not tokens. See also
Accordingly, I grant the token theory no credence and find that we have presented very persuasive evidence here that Pharaonic Egyptian hieroglyphic writing developed out of what are today called the Danube Scripts. The initial use of these symbols, as I have clearly demonstrated in my decipherments, was for astronomy.